Volume 29, Issue 13 p. 1591-1598
Review

Visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: Theoretical models

Alana J. Muller BMedSc (Hons)

Alana J. Muller BMedSc (Hons)

Brain & Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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James M. Shine BSc (Adv), MBBS, PhD

James M. Shine BSc (Adv), MBBS, PhD

Brain & Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Glenda M. Halliday PhD

Glenda M. Halliday PhD

Neuroscience Research Australia, University of NSW, Australia

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Simon J.G. Lewis MBBCh, BSc, MRCP, FRACP, MD

Corresponding Author

Simon J.G. Lewis MBBCh, BSc, MRCP, FRACP, MD

Brain & Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Correspondence to: Dr. Simon J.G. Lewis, Brain & Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, 94 Mallett Street, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia, E-mail: [email protected]Search for more papers by this author
First published: 22 August 2014
Citations: 64

Funding agencies: This study was supported by

Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.

Author roles may be found in the online version of this article.

Abstract

One of the most challenging tasks in neuroscience is to be able to meaningfully connect information across the different levels of investigation, from molecular or structural biology to the resulting behavior and cognition. Visual hallucinations are a frequent occurrence in Parkinson's disease and significantly contribute to the burden of the disease. Because of the widespread pathological processes implicated in visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease, a final common mechanism that explains their manifestation will require an integrative approach, in which consideration is taken across all complementary levels of analysis. This review considers the leading hypothetical frameworks for visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease, summarizing the key aspects of each in an attempt to highlight the aspects of the condition that such a unifying hypothesis must explain. These competing hypotheses include implications of dream imagery intrusion, deficits in reality monitoring, and impairments in visual perception and attention. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society